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Questões de Vestibular: Vestibular USP

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Texto associado.
TEXTO PARA A QUESTÃO

    Assigning female genders to digital assistants such as Apple’s Siri and Amazon’s Alexa is helping entrench harmful gender biases, according to a UN agency.
    Research released by Unesco claims that the often submissive and flirty responses offered by the systemsto many queries – including outright abusive ones – reinforce ideas of women as subservient.
    “Because the speech of most voice assistants is female, it sends a signal that women are obliging, docile and eager?to? please helpers, available at the touch of a button or with a blunt voice command like ‘hey’ or ‘OK’”, the report said.
    “The assistant holds no power of agency beyond what the commander asks of it. It honours commands and responds to queries regardless of their tone or hostility. In many communities, this reinforces commonly held gender biases that women are subservient and tolerant of poor treatment.”
    The Unesco publication was entitled “I’d Blush if I Could”; a reference to the response Apple’s Siri assistant offers to the phrase: “You’re a slut.” Amazon’s Alexa will respond: “Well, thanks for the feedback.”
    The paper said such firms were “staffed by overwhelmingly male engineering teams” and have built AI (Artificial Intelligence) systems that “cause their feminised digital assistants to greet verbal abuse with catch?me?if?you?can flirtation”.
    Saniye Gülser Corat, Unesco’s director for gender equality, said: “The world needs to pay much closer attention to how, when and whether AI technologies are gendered and, crucially, who is gendering them.”
The Guardian, May, 2019. Adaptado.
De acordo com o texto, na opinião de Saniye Gülser Corat, tecnologias que envolvem Inteligência Artificial, entre outros aspectos,
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    O rumor crescia, condensandose; o zunzum de todos os
dias acentuavase; já se não destacavam vozes dispersas, mas
um só ruído compacto que enchia todo o cortiço. Começavam a
fazer compras na venda; ensarilhavamse* discussões e
rezingas**; ouviamse gargalhadas e pragas; já se não falava,
gritavase. Sentiase naquela fermentação sanguínea, naquela
gula viçosa de plantas rasteiras que mergulham os pés
vigorosos na lama preta e nutriente da vida, o prazer animal de
existir, a triunfante satisfação de respirar sobre a terra.
    Da porta da venda que dava para o cortiço iam e vinham
como formigas; fazendo compras.
    Duas janelas do Miranda abriramse. Apareceu numa a
Isaura, que se dispunha a começar a limpeza da casa.
     Nhá Dunga! gritou ela para baixo, a sacudir um pano
de mesa; se você tem cuscuz de milho hoje, bata na porta,
ouviu?
                                                                 Aluísio Azevedo, O cortiço.
Uma característica do Naturalismo presente no texto é:
Texto associado.

Equipamentos domésticos chamados de vaporizadores para roupa utilizam o vapor de água gerado por um sistema de resistências elétricas a partir de água líquida. Um equipamento com potência nominal de 1.600 W foi utilizado para passar roupas por 20 minutos, consumindo 540 mL de água. Em relação ao gasto total de energia do equipamento, o gasto de energia utilizado apenas para vaporizar a água, após ela já ter atingido a temperatura de ebulição, equivale a, aproximadamente,
Note e adote: Entalpia de vaporização da água a 100 °C = 40 kJ/mol; Massa molar da água = 18 g/mol; Densidade da água = 1 g/mL.
Texto associado.
Working for on demand startups like Uber and TaskRabbit is supposed to offer flexible hours and higher wages, but many workers have found the pay lower and the hours less flexible than they expected. Even more surprising: 8 percent of those chauffeuring passengers and 16 percent of those making deliveries said they lack personal autoinsurance.

Those are among the findings from a survey about the work life of independent contractors for on-demand startups, a booming sector of the tech industry, being released Wednesday.

"We want to shed light on the industry as a whole," said Isaac Madan, a Stanford master s candidate in bioinformatics who worked with two other Stanford students and a recent alumnus on the survey of 1,330 workers. "People need to understand how this space will change and evolve and help the economy."

On-demand, often called the sharing economy, refers to companies that let users summon workers via smartphone apps to handle all manner of services: rides, cleaning, chores, deliveries, car parking, waiting in lines. Almost uniformly, those workers are independent contractors rather than salaried employees.

That status is the main point of contention in a recent rash of lawsuits in which workers are filing for employee status. While the survey did not directly ask

contractors if they would prefer to be employees, it found that their top workplace desires were to have paid health insurance, retirement benefits and paid time off for holidays, vacation and sick days - all perks of full time workers. Respondents also expressed interest in having more chances for advancement, education sponsorship, disability insurance and human relations support. Because respondents were recruited rather than randomly selected, the survey does not claim to be representational but a conclusion one may come to is that flexibility ofnew jobs comes with a cost. Not all workers are prepared for that!

SFChronicle.com and SFGate.com, May 20, 2015. Adaptado
Segundo o texto, empresas do tipo "on-demand"
Texto associado.
Working for on demand startups like Uber and TaskRabbit is supposed to offer flexible hours and higher wages, but many workers have found the pay lower and the hours less flexible than they expected. Even more surprising: 8 percent of those chauffeuring passengers and 16 percent of those making deliveries said they lack personal autoinsurance.

Those are among the findings from a survey about the work life of independent contractors for on-demand startups, a booming sector of the tech industry, being released Wednesday.

"We want to shed light on the industry as a whole," said Isaac Madan, a Stanford master s candidate in bioinformatics who worked with two other Stanford students and a recent alumnus on the survey of 1,330 workers. "People need to understand how this space will change and evolve and help the economy."

On-demand, often called the sharing economy, refers to companies that let users summon workers via smartphone apps to handle all manner of services: rides, cleaning, chores, deliveries, car parking, waiting in lines. Almost uniformly, those workers are independent contractors rather than salaried employees.

That status is the main point of contention in a recent rash of lawsuits in which workers are filing for employee status. While the survey did not directly ask

contractors if they would prefer to be employees, it found that their top workplace desires were to have paid health insurance, retirement benefits and paid time off for holidays, vacation and sick days - all perks of full time workers. Respondents also expressed interest in having more chances for advancement, education sponsorship, disability insurance and human relations support. Because respondents were recruited rather than randomly selected, the survey does not claim to be representational but a conclusion one may come to is that flexibility ofnew jobs comes with a cost. Not all workers are prepared for that!

SFChronicle.com and SFGate.com, May 20, 2015. Adaptado
Um dos resultados da pesquisa realizada com prestadores de serviços de empresas do tipo "on-demand" mostra que esses trabalhadores
Texto associado.
Working for on demand startups like Uber and TaskRabbit is supposed to offer flexible hours and higher wages, but many workers have found the pay lower and the hours less flexible than they expected. Even more surprising: 8 percent of those chauffeuring passengers and 16 percent of those making deliveries said they lack personal autoinsurance.

Those are among the findings from a survey about the work life of independent contractors for on-demand startups, a booming sector of the tech industry, being released Wednesday.

"We want to shed light on the industry as a whole," said Isaac Madan, a Stanford master s candidate in bioinformatics who worked with two other Stanford students and a recent alumnus on the survey of 1,330 workers. "People need to understand how this space will change and evolve and help the economy."

On-demand, often called the sharing economy, refers to companies that let users summon workers via smartphone apps to handle all manner of services: rides, cleaning, chores, deliveries, car parking, waiting in lines. Almost uniformly, those workers are independent contractors rather than salaried employees.

That status is the main point of contention in a recent rash of lawsuits in which workers are filing for employee status. While the survey did not directly ask

contractors if they would prefer to be employees, it found that their top workplace desires were to have paid health insurance, retirement benefits and paid time off for holidays, vacation and sick days - all perks of full time workers. Respondents also expressed interest in having more chances for advancement, education sponsorship, disability insurance and human relations support. Because respondents were recruited rather than randomly selected, the survey does not claim to be representational but a conclusion one may come to is that flexibility ofnew jobs comes with a cost. Not all workers are prepared for that!

SFChronicle.com and SFGate.com, May 20, 2015. Adaptado
Outro resultado da mesma pesquisa indica que
Um veículo viaja entre dois povoados da Serra da Mantiqueira, percorrendo a primeira terça parte do trajeto à velocidade média de 60 km/h, a terça parte seguinte a 40 km/h e o restante do percurso a 20 km/h. O valor que melhor aproxima a velocidade média do veículo nessa viagem, em km/h , é
Em um experimento probabilístico, Joana retirará aleatoriamente 2 bolas de uma caixa contendo bolas azuis e bolas vermelhas. Ao montar-se o experimento, colocam-se 6 bolas azuis na caixa. Quantas bolas vermelhas devem ser acrescentadas para que a probabilidade de Joana obter 2 azuis seja 1/3 ?
Em uma classe com 14 alunos, 8 são mulheres e 6 são homens. A média das notas das mulheres no final do semestre ficou 1 ponto acima da média da classe. A soma das notas dos homens foi metade da soma das notas das mulheres. Então, a média das notas dos homens ficou mais próxima de
Dispõe-se de 2 litros de uma solução aquosa de soda cáustica que apresenta pH 9. O volume de água, em litros, que deve ser adicionado a esses 2 litros para que a solução resultante apresente pH 8 é