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Questões de Vestibular: Inglês

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Texto associado.

INSTRUÇÃO: Responder à questão com base no texto 2.

TEXTO 2

STATELESSNESS

NEWSLETTER

#IBELONG CAMPAIGN

Celebrating its 6th anniversary

UNHCR 2020 Youth With Refugees Art Contest.

©UNHCR/Faida

The words that fill in the blanks correctly in Text 2 are, respectively,

Letters


Children and Guns

Published: May 7, 2013

To the Editor: Re “Girl’s Death by Gunshot Is Rejected as Symbol” (news article, May 6):


I find it abhorrent that the people of Burkesville, Ky., are not willing to learn a lesson from the tragic shooting of a 2-year-old girl by her 5-year-old brother. I am not judging their lifestyle of introducing guns to children at a young age, but I do feel that it’s irresponsible not to practice basic safety with anything potentially lethal — guns, knives, fire and so on. How can anyone justify leaving guns lying around, unlocked and possibly loaded, in a home with two young children? I wish the family of the victim comfort during this difficult time, but to dismiss this as a simple accident leaves open the potential for many more such “accidents” to occur. I hope this doesn’t have to happen several more times for legislators to realize that something needs to be changed.

EMILY LOUBATON

Brooklyn, May 6, 2013

Disponível em: www.nytimes.com. Acesso em: 10 maio 2013.


No que diz respeito à tragédia ocorrida em Burkesville, a autora da carta enviada ao The New York Times busca

Texto associado.
TEXTO PARA A QUESTÃO

    Assigning female genders to digital assistants such as Apple’s Siri and Amazon’s Alexa is helping entrench harmful gender biases, according to a UN agency.
    Research released by Unesco claims that the often submissive and flirty responses offered by the systemsto many queries – including outright abusive ones – reinforce ideas of women as subservient.
    “Because the speech of most voice assistants is female, it sends a signal that women are obliging, docile and eager?to? please helpers, available at the touch of a button or with a blunt voice command like ‘hey’ or ‘OK’”, the report said.
    “The assistant holds no power of agency beyond what the commander asks of it. It honours commands and responds to queries regardless of their tone or hostility. In many communities, this reinforces commonly held gender biases that women are subservient and tolerant of poor treatment.”
    The Unesco publication was entitled “I’d Blush if I Could”; a reference to the response Apple’s Siri assistant offers to the phrase: “You’re a slut.” Amazon’s Alexa will respond: “Well, thanks for the feedback.”
    The paper said such firms were “staffed by overwhelmingly male engineering teams” and have built AI (Artificial Intelligence) systems that “cause their feminised digital assistants to greet verbal abuse with catch?me?if?you?can flirtation”.
    Saniye Gülser Corat, Unesco’s director for gender equality, said: “The world needs to pay much closer attention to how, when and whether AI technologies are gendered and, crucially, who is gendering them.”
The Guardian, May, 2019. Adaptado.
De acordo com o texto, na opinião de Saniye Gülser Corat, tecnologias que envolvem Inteligência Artificial, entre outros aspectos,
Texto associado.

Para as questões 36 e 37, leia o texto abaixo.

Advice for new students from those who know (old students)
The first day of college I was a ball of nerves. I remember
walking into my first class and running to the first seat I
found, thinking everyone would be staring at me. But
nobody seemed to notice and then it hit me: The fact that
nobody knew me meant nobody would judge, which, upon
reflection, was what I was scared of the most. I told myself
to let go. All along the year, I forced myself into situations
that were uncomfortable for me – for example, auditioning
for a dance piece. Believe it or not, that performance was a
highlight of my freshman year. My advice: challenge
yourself to try something new, something you couldn’t have
done in high school. – Ria Jagasia, Vanderbilt University,
’18.

(Adaptado de http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/02/ education/edlife/
advice-for-new-students-from-those-who-know-old-students.html?ref=
edlife.)


No primeiro dia de faculdade, Ria ficou muito nervosa

Texto associado.
Our (Im)perfect bOdIes
Since I write a lot about positive body image, you’d think that I am well over the idea that weight
should be something that I allow to define my life. Yet, the vestiges of my past life as a woman
obsessed with weight still linger. A good example is vacation pictures. If I show you pictures of all
the places I have been in my Iife, I can give you minute details about the place itself, the food, the
5 sights and the weather. I can also tell you something else simply by looking at those pictures: the
exact number on the scale I was at that particular time in my life.
Sometimes my past catches up with me. I like to think of myself as a recovering weight-a-holic.
The fear of being overweight is a constant one of despair at not being personally successful in
controlling your own body. What good is being in control of finances, major companies and
10 businesses if you’re not in control of your body?! Silly idea, right? And yet that is exactly the
unconscious thought many intelligent women have.
Feeling satisfied with your appearance makes a tremendous amount of difference in how you
present yourself to the world. Some women live their entire lives on their perception of their
physical selves. But I’ve been there, done that. The hell with that idea! Personally, I became tired
15 of living my Iife this way.
My friend is an art historian who specializes in the Renaissance period. Talking with him recently gave
me a perspective on body image. As we walked through the permanent exhibit of Renaissance
Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, he pointed out the paintings done of women.
The women came in all sizes, all shapes. Some were curvier than others, but all were beautiful.
20 Some had what we refer to as love handles; some had soft, fuller stomachs that had never suffered
through crunches in a gym. Though I had seen them many times, it was actually refreshing to view
them in a new light.
We are led to believe our self-worth must be a reflection of our looks. So, in essence, if we don’t
believe we look good, we assume we have no worth! Yet, self-worth should have nothing to do
25 with looks and everything to do with an innate feeling that you really are worth it. You are worth
going after your dreams, you are worth being in a good relationship, you are worth living a life that
fulfills and nourishes you, and you are certainly worthy of being a successful woman.
There is a quote attributed to Michelangelo that I’ve always admired. When a friend complimented
him on the glorious Sistine Chapel, the great artist, referring to his art in the feminine form, was
said to have replied: “She is worthy of admiration simply because she exists; perfection and
imperfection together”.
BRISTEN HOUGHTON
Adaptado de twitter.com.
In the last two paragraphs, the author establishes a relationship between the ideas of self-worth and one’s looks. This relationship is best expressed in: 
Texto associado.
ARE YOU A FACEBOOK ADDICT?  

Are you a social media enthusiast or simply a Facebook addict? Researchers from Norway have developed a new instrument to measure Facebook addiction, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale.

"The use of Facebook has increased rapidly. We are dealing with a subdivision of Internet addiction connected to social media," Doctor of Psychology Cecilie Schou Andreassen says about the study, which is the first of its kind worldwide. 

Andreassen heads the research project  "Facebook Addiction" at the University of Bergen (UiB). An article about the results has just been published in the renowned journal Psychological Reports. She has clear views as to why some people develop Facebook dependency. 

"It occurs more regularly among younger than older users. We have also found that people who are anxious and socially insecure use Facebook more than those with lower scores on those traits, probably because those who are anxious find it easier to communicate via social media than face-to- face," Andreassen says.  

People who are organised and more ambitious tend to be less at risk from Facebook addiction. They will often use social media as an integral part of work and networking. 

"Our research also indicates that women are more at risk of developing Facebook addiction, probably due to the social nature of Facebook," Andreassen says. 

Six warning signs

As Facebook has become as ubiquitous as television in our everyday lives, it is becoming increasingly difficult for many people to know if they are addicted to social media. Andreassen’s study shows that the symptoms of Facebook addiction resemble those of drug  addiction, alcohol addiction and chemical substance addiction. 

The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale is based on six basic criteria, where all items are scored on the following scale: (1) Very rarely, (2) Rarely, (3) Sometimes, (4) Often, (5)Very often, and (6) Always. 

• You spend a lot of time thinking about Facebook or planning to use of Facebook.
• You feel an urge to use Facebook more and more.
• You use Facebook in order to forget about personal problems.
• You have tried to cut down on the use of Facebook without success.
• You become restless or troubled if you are prohibited from using Facebook.
• You use Facebook so much that it has had a negative impact on your job/studies.  

Andreassen’s study shows that scoring “often” or “very often” on at least four of the six items may suggest that you are addicted to Facebook. 


Disponível em: Acesso em: Acesso em: 3 jun. 2013 (Texto adaptado)
According to the passage, it is correct to say that 
Texto associado.
    BOGOF is used as a noun as in ‘There are some great bogofs on at the supermarket’ or an adjective, usually with a word such as ‘offer’ or ‘deal’ – ‘there are some great bogof offers in store’.
    When you combine the first letters of the words in a phrase or the name of an organisation, you have an acronym. Acronyms are spoken as a word so NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) is not pronounced N-A-T-O. We say NATO. Bogof, when said out loud, is quite comical for a native speaker, as it sounds like an insult, ‘Bog off!’ meaning go away, leave me alone, slightly childish and a little old-fashioned.
    BOGOF is the best-known of the supermarket marketing strategies. The concept was first imported from the USA during the 1970s recession, when food prices were very high. It came back into fashion in the late 1990s, led by big supermarket chains trying to gain a competitive advantage over each other. Consumers were attracted by the idea that they could get something for nothing. Who could possibly say ‘no’?
Disponível em: www.bbc.co.uk. Acesso em 2 ago. 2012 (adaptado).
Considerando-se as informações do texto, a expressão “bogof” é usada para
Texto associado.
ARE YOU A FACEBOOK ADDICT?  

Are you a social media enthusiast or simply a Facebook addict? Researchers from Norway have developed a new instrument to measure Facebook addiction, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale.

"The use of Facebook has increased rapidly. We are dealing with a subdivision of Internet addiction connected to social media," Doctor of Psychology Cecilie Schou Andreassen says about the study, which is the first of its kind worldwide. 

Andreassen heads the research project  "Facebook Addiction" at the University of Bergen (UiB). An article about the results has just been published in the renowned journal Psychological Reports. She has clear views as to why some people develop Facebook dependency. 

"It occurs more regularly among younger than older users. We have also found that people who are anxious and socially insecure use Facebook more than those with lower scores on those traits, probably because those who are anxious find it easier to communicate via social media than face-to- face," Andreassen says.  

People who are organised and more ambitious tend to be less at risk from Facebook addiction. They will often use social media as an integral part of work and networking. 

"Our research also indicates that women are more at risk of developing Facebook addiction, probably due to the social nature of Facebook," Andreassen says. 

Six warning signs

As Facebook has become as ubiquitous as television in our everyday lives, it is becoming increasingly difficult for many people to know if they are addicted to social media. Andreassen’s study shows that the symptoms of Facebook addiction resemble those of drug  addiction, alcohol addiction and chemical substance addiction. 

The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale is based on six basic criteria, where all items are scored on the following scale: (1) Very rarely, (2) Rarely, (3) Sometimes, (4) Often, (5)Very often, and (6) Always. 

• You spend a lot of time thinking about Facebook or planning to use of Facebook.
• You feel an urge to use Facebook more and more.
• You use Facebook in order to forget about personal problems.
• You have tried to cut down on the use of Facebook without success.
• You become restless or troubled if you are prohibited from using Facebook.
• You use Facebook so much that it has had a negative impact on your job/studies.  

Andreassen’s study shows that scoring “often” or “very often” on at least four of the six items may suggest that you are addicted to Facebook. 


Disponível em: Acesso em: Acesso em: 3 jun. 2013 (Texto adaptado)
It is implied in the passage that 
Texto associado.
ARE YOU A FACEBOOK ADDICT?  

Are you a social media enthusiast or simply a Facebook addict? Researchers from Norway have developed a new instrument to measure Facebook addiction, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale.

"The use of Facebook has increased rapidly. We are dealing with a subdivision of Internet addiction connected to social media," Doctor of Psychology Cecilie Schou Andreassen says about the study, which is the first of its kind worldwide. 

Andreassen heads the research project  "Facebook Addiction" at the University of Bergen (UiB). An article about the results has just been published in the renowned journal Psychological Reports. She has clear views as to why some people develop Facebook dependency. 

"It occurs more regularly among younger than older users. We have also found that people who are anxious and socially insecure use Facebook more than those with lower scores on those traits, probably because those who are anxious find it easier to communicate via social media than face-to- face," Andreassen says.  

People who are organised and more ambitious tend to be less at risk from Facebook addiction. They will often use social media as an integral part of work and networking. 

"Our research also indicates that women are more at risk of developing Facebook addiction, probably due to the social nature of Facebook," Andreassen says. 

Six warning signs

As Facebook has become as ubiquitous as television in our everyday lives, it is becoming increasingly difficult for many people to know if they are addicted to social media. Andreassen’s study shows that the symptoms of Facebook addiction resemble those of drug  addiction, alcohol addiction and chemical substance addiction. 

The Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale is based on six basic criteria, where all items are scored on the following scale: (1) Very rarely, (2) Rarely, (3) Sometimes, (4) Often, (5)Very often, and (6) Always. 

• You spend a lot of time thinking about Facebook or planning to use of Facebook.
• You feel an urge to use Facebook more and more.
• You use Facebook in order to forget about personal problems.
• You have tried to cut down on the use of Facebook without success.
• You become restless or troubled if you are prohibited from using Facebook.
• You use Facebook so much that it has had a negative impact on your job/studies.  

Andreassen’s study shows that scoring “often” or “very often” on at least four of the six items may suggest that you are addicted to Facebook. 


Disponível em: Acesso em: Acesso em: 3 jun. 2013 (Texto adaptado)
According to the Bergen Facebook addiction scale, it can be said that you may be addicted to Facebook when
Texto associado.
The effect of climate change on epidemic risk
The potential impacts of climate change have returned to headlines in recent weeks as scientists,
activists and policy makers try to understand the possible implications of a warming planet. While
rising temperatures and sea levels are important to be considered, changing climate patterns can
have vast implications for epidemic risk as well.
5 Changes in global climate patterns have been widely discussed; however, rising temperatures
also have implications for risk reduction and management, including impacts on infectious disease
epidemics. With 2016 the hottest year ever recorded and 2017 following suit, we anticipate a
continued growth in the distribution of disease agents, like mosquitoes and ticks. These can
spread illnesses such as zika, yellow fever and dengue to areas where they previously could not be
10 effectively transmitted.
As predicted by climate scientists, increases in extreme weather events may also lead to increases
in infectious disease outbreaks. Epidemics have previously been seen as a consequence of natural
disasters, which can lead to displaced and crowded populations, the ideal situation for infection
transmission. Severe rainfall or flooding is particularly effective at creating environments suitable
15 for the transmission and propagation of infectious diseases, such as measles or cholera.
Even without rising to the level of a natural catastrophe, significant variation in weather patterns
can result in changes in human and animal interactions, increasing the potential for pathogens to
move from animals into human populations. For example, unusually heavy rains may predispose
regions to ebola outbreaks by creating more favorable environments for bats hosting the virus.
20 Similarly, food scarcity brought about by drought, political instability or animal disease may lead to
more animal hunting, therefore raising the risk for ebola virus epidemic.
It is important to take note of the impact of climate change on epidemic risk, but it is equally
important to prepare for its impact on global health. The global health community has largely come
to realize that public health preparedness is crucial to responding efficiently to infectious disease
25 outbreaks. For this reason, our work is, then, centered around helping governments manage and
quantify infectious disease risk. Besides, regardless of weather patterns, insights into epidemics
and into mechanisms for ensuring adequate support are critical for managing this risk.
Since the public health community agrees that the question is not if another outbreak will happen,
but when, the steps we take in the coming years to prepare for and reduce the increasing frequency
of outbreaks will determine the broader implications these diseases have on our world.
contagionlive.com
The texts “Três teses sobre o avanço da febre amarela” and “The effect of climate change on epidemic risk”
mention possible reasons for disease outbreaks.
The reason which is presented in both texts is